Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance effect in magnetic multilayers in 1988 a new branch of physics and technology called spin electronics or spintronics has emerged where the flow of electrical charge as well as the flow of electron spin the so called spin current are manipulated and controlled together. Spin continuity equation basis for study spin accumulation in the bulk spin accumulation at boundaries with shallow confinement can define a spin force measurement from heat generation onsager relation is satisfied and can also be used for measuring spin current through the inverse spin hall altered results on spin hall conductivity. However because a spin up electron moving to the right has the same effect as a spin down electron moving to the left the flows of spin reinforced each other leading to a pure spin current the two teams used different optical techniques to spot the spin only currents which flowed for only a few nanometers
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